Numerical Modeling for Stratified Flows, Internal Waves and Mixing Processes in Great Lakes, Estuaries and Oceans

Internal waves (IWs) in stratified flows propagate along the interface separating waters, usually where a layer of warmer water lies over a layer of colder water (although differences in salinity may also give rise to the density difference). In thermally stratified waters the thermocline, where the temperature changes rapidly with depth, separates warmer surface waters from the colder deeper water. IWs represent an important mechanism for mixing surface and deeper water, and for the transport of organisms, sediments and pollutants. The mixing and the vertical displacement of the thermocline associated with IWs play an important role in the stratified flows in lakes, estuaries and oceans. Given the need to understand the processes of IW generation, propagation, and interaction with boundaries, we have carried out some three-dimensional numerical simulations to understand the mechanism of these processes for Lake Erie and St. Lawrence Estuary in Canada.

Internal Waves Interacting and Shoaling on a Slope
 Bathymetry of Lake Erie (Great Lakes in Canada)
 Free Surface Elevation
Internal Waves